For the installation of solar power as power plants, required the following components:
1. Solar cell
2. Charge controller
installation of photovoltaic panels
Solar cell : solar cell produces electrical energy at no cost, to convert solar energy into electricity. Tues silicon (also called solar cells) are exposed to the sun / solar, make the photons that produce electrical current. A solar cell produces approximately 0.5 volts voltage. So a solar cell 12 Volt consist of approximately 36 cells (to produce a maximum voltage of 17 volts).
Charge controller, used to adjust the settings for battery charging. The maximum voltage produced by solar cell on a sweltering day will produce a high voltage that can damage the battery.
Inverter, is an electrical device that converts DC voltage (DC - direct current) into AC voltage (AC - alternating current),.
Batteries are chemical devices to store electricity from solar power. Without batteries, solar energy can be used only when there is sunlight.
Diagram of solar power plant consists of a solar cell, charge controllers, inverters, batteries.
solar cell installation diagram
From the diagram above solar power plants: a solar cell in parallel to generate larger currents. Splitters in the image above connects the positive foot solar cells with a solar cell other. Leg / negative pole panel is also connected to one another. Positive foot solar cell is connected to the foot of a positive charge controller, and a negative foot solar cell is connected to the negative leg charge controller. Voltage solar cell is generated will be used by the charge controller to charge the battery. To turn the device load AC (alternating current) such as Television, Radio, computers, etc., the battery current supplied by the inverter.
Installation of power plants with solar power requires planning on the need for power:
* Total consumption
* The number of solar cell
* Number of batteries
Purposes of power calculations (calculations of power devices can be seen on the label on the back of the device, or read from the manual):
* Lighting of the house: 10 @ 15 Watt CFL lamp x 4 hours per day = 600 watt hour.
* Television 21 ": @ 100 watts x 5 hours per day = 500 watt hour
* Fridge 360 liters @ 135 Watts x 24 hours x 1 / 3 (because it does not always live a refrigerator compressor, generally they work more often when the refrigerator is more frequently opened doors) = 1080 Watt hour
* Computers: @ 150 watts x 6 hours = 900 Watt hour
* Other Devices hour = 400 Watt
* Total demand = 3480 Watt Power Hour
Total solar cell is needed, one panel we count 100 Watt (5 hours maximum calculation is solar powered):
* Need solar cell: (3480 / 100 x 5) = 7 solar cell.
Total demand 12 volt batteries with 100 Ah respectively:
* Need minimum battery (battery is used only for the fulfillment of 50% electricity needs), thus we multiply the power requirement of 2 x folding: 3480 x 2 = 6960 Watt hour = 6960 / 12 Volt / 100 Amp = 6 batteries 100 Ah.
* Needs batteries (with consideration to serve the needs of three days without sunlight): 3480 x 3 x 2 = 20 880 Watt hour = 20880 / 12 Volt / 100 Amp = 17 batteries, 100 Ah.
Installing solar power plants can be seen in the pictures in National Geographic Indonesia.